Phrase modifiers

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Strong importance

Strong importance can be given to the text by surrounding it with asterisks. The strong text is commonly styled as bold.

Don't *ever* pull this lever.

Don’t ever pull this lever.

Stress emphasis

To add emphasis to a stressed word or phrase, surround it with underscores. Emphasized text is typically styled as italics.

You didn't actually _believe_ her, did you?

You didn’t actually believe her, did you?

Stylistic offset

To stylistically differentiate a word or phrase from the surrounding text without conveying any extra importance, place two asterisks on either side. Uses are key words in a document abstract, product names in a review, or other spans of text whose typical typographic presentation is boldened.

Search results for **Textile**:

h4. ["**Textile** (markup language) - Wikipedia":]

**Textile** is a lightweight markup language originally developed by Dean Allen and billed as a "humane Web text generator".  **Textile** converts its marked-up text ...

Search results for Textile:

Textile (markup language) - Wikipedia

Textile is a lightweight markup language originally developed by Dean Allen and billed as a “humane Web text generator”. Textile converts its marked-up text …

Alternate voice

Double underscores surround a span of text in an alternate mood or voice, a technical term, an idiomatic phrase from another language, a thought, a ship name, or some other prose whose typical typographic presentation is italicized.

I just got the weirdest feeling of __déjà vu__.

I just got the weirdest feeling of déjà vu.


Cite the title of a work (e.g. a book, paper, essay, poem, score, song, script, film, TV show, game, sculpture, painting, theater production, play, opera, musical, exhibition, or anything other work whose title is italicized in traditional style guides) by surrounding it with two question marks on either side. This can be a work that is being quoted or referenced in detail (i.e. a citation), or it can just be a work that is mentioned in passing.

My wife's favorite book is ??The Count of Monte Cristo?? by Dumas.

My wife’s favorite book is The Count of Monte Cristo by Dumas.

Insertions and deletions

To indicate a passage which has been deleted, surround it with minuses. To indicate an insertion, use pluses.

The news networks declared -Al Gore- +George W. Bush+ the winner in Florida.

The news networks declared Al Gore George W. Bush the winner in Florida.

Explicit insertion and deletion

If your insertion or deletion isn’t being recognized or is being confused with another modifier, you can make it more explicit by surrounding it with square brackets.

[-this was deleted-][+this was added+] to the paragraph

this was deletedthis was added to the paragraph

Superscript and subscript

Superscript and subscript phrases are surrounded with caret and tilde characters, respectively.

f(x, n) = log ~4~ x ^n^

f(x, n) = log 4 x n

Tight superscript and subscript

If you want it without spaces around the super- and subscripted text, use square brackets.

f(x, n) = log[~4~]x[^n^]

f(x, n) = log4xn


Link title

Bracketed link

Link alias

Link attributes


Include an image by surrounding its URL with exclamation marks. Alt text can be provided in parentheses.

! page is valid HTML)!

Image links